A transformer is really a static machine utilized for transforming power in one circuit to a different one without changing frequency. This can be a standard definition of transformer. While there is no rotating or moving part so transformer is actually a static device. Transformer runs using ac supply. Transformer works in the principle of mutual induction.
If we would like to understand the background of transformer we have go back long in the 1880s. Around half a century before that in 1830 property of induction which is the working principle of transformer was discovered. Later the transformer design was improved contributing to more efficiency and lesser size. Gradually the large capacity of electrical transformers in all the different several KVA, MVA came into existence. In the year 1950, 400KV electrical power transformer was introduced in high voltage electrical power system. In early 1970s, unit rating as large as 1100 MVA was produced and 800KV and even higher KV class transformers were produced in year of 1980.
Generation of electrical power in low voltage level is extremely much affordable. Theoretically, this low voltage level power can be transmitted for the receiving end. This low voltage power if transmitted results in greater line current which indeed causes more line lossesBut in the event the voltage level of an electrical power is increased, the current from the power is reduced which causes lowering of ohmic or I2R losses from the system, reduction in cross sectional part of the conductor i.e. decrease in capital price of the machine and in addition it increases the voltage regulating the machine. As a consequence of these, low level power needs to be stepped up for efficient electrical power transmission. This can be done by improve transformer with the sending side of your power system network. As this high voltage power may not be distributed to the consumers directly, this should be stepped to the required level at the receiving end by using step down transformer. Electrical power transformer thus plays an important role in power transmission. power system Two winding transformers are generally used where ratio of high voltage and low voltage is higher than 2. It can be affordable to use auto transformer where ratio between high voltage dexjpky57 low voltage is lower than 2. Again a single unit three phase transformer is more cost-effective when compared to a bank of three 200kv power transformer in a three phase system. But a single three phase transformer unit is difficult to transport and have to be pulled from service entirely if one of several phase winding breaks down.
Forms of Transformer
Transformers might be categorized in different ways, depending on their purpose, use, construction etc. The sorts of transformer are listed below,
Step-up Transformer and Step Down Transformer – Generally useful for stepping down and up the voltage degree of power in transmission and distribution power system network.
Three Phase Transformer and Single Phase Transformer – Former is often utilized in three phase power system because it is affordable than later. But when size matters, it really is preferable try using a bank of three single phase transformer since it is quicker to transport than a single single three phase transformer unit.
Electrical Power Transformer, Distribution Transformer and Instrument Transformer – Power transformers are often found in transmission network for stepping up or down the voltage level. It operates mainly during high or peak loads and possesses maximum efficiency at or near full load. Distribution transformer steps across the voltage for distribution purpose to domestic or commercial users. It offers good voltage regulation and operates 24 hrs every day with maximum efficiency at 50% of full load. Instrument transformers include C.T and P.T which are used to reduce high voltages and current to lesser values which can be measured by conventional instruments.
Two Winding Transformer and Auto Transformer – Former is often used where ratio between high voltage and low voltage is more than 2. It is affordable to make use of later the location where the ratio between high voltage and low voltage is lower than 2.
Outdoor Transformer and Indoor Transformer – Transformers that are equipped for installing at outdoor are outdoor transformers and transformers designed for installing at indoor are furnace transformer for sale.
Oil Cooled and Dry Type Transformer – In oil cooled transformer the cooling medium is transformer oil whereas the dry type transformer is air cooled.
Core type, Shell type and Berry type transformer – In core type transformer it offers two vertical legs or limbs with two horizontal sections named yoke. Core is rectangular in shape using a common magnetic circuit. Cylindrical coils (HV and LV) are placed for both the limbs.
Shell type transformer: It features a central limb as well as two outer limbs. Both HV, LV coils are put in the central limb. Double magnetic circuit is found.
Berry type transformer: The core seems like spokes of wheels. Tightly fitted metal sheet tanks can be used for housing this kind of transformer with transformer oil filled inside.