“Time may be the fire we burn in.” Even though we may not be able to quench its unrelenting flame, scientists have attempted to divert its path by isolating small enclosures where time slows to some crawl. Within these chambers the frenetic Brownian dance becomes a chaperoned waltz, as temperatures approach absolute zero. The internal environment of Cryogenic storage Dewar can be a world apart, a reminder in the ultimate heat-death that must befall our universe from the eons ahead.
For individuals who attempt to discover truths in regards to the workings of your cell, holding back the floodgates of time is a problem of significant proportions. Scientists tend to be thinking about very specific cell properties that happen at critical junctions inside the life of a cell. Holding these processes from increasing while their properties may be exploited is similar to the problem of catching one’s shadow.
Cryogenic freezing of cells has been used as one solution to the issue in the slow burn. By reducing the temperatures of samples for the glass transition phase of -133°C, the temperature in which all metabolic activity concerns a halt, scientists can easily seclude moments soon enough, returning time and again to investigate that instant throughout history.
Unsurprisingly, cryogenics is becoming a vital industry which makes customized products for nearly every conceivable purpose. From small tabletop apparatus to industrial-scale liquifiers, the market in cryogenics provides mechanical freezers, packing containers, and dewars in each and every size, shape, and configuration imaginable. By using these a multitude of products from which to choose expertise in which of them are most effective may elude the average consumer. To be able to provide a summary of the major producers of cryogenic laboratory supplies several manufacturers is going to be profiled in this article.
Ultra-low lab freezers are some of those items that a lot of people never consider until they quit working. Created to run for several years without interruption in service, lab freezers are the quiet sentinels of the laboratory, keeping a vigilant watch across the researcher’s most prized possessions. Most scientists stay away from the very thought of what might happen if their freezer failed, or they attempt to erase the memory through the day if it did. A career’s amount of samples can be lost in just one afternoon– numerous years of careful collecting and cataloging reduced to mere puddles on the ground. Even though such a scenario looms ominously within the periphery of each researcher’s consciousness, not many are prepared during the day whenever it actually occurs. Manufacturers of ultra-low lab freezers have got great pains to make sure that power failures and refrigerant leaks will never compromise one’s samples. They build machines that are intended to be forgotten.
MMR Technologies is definitely the only company which uses the Kleemenko cooling cycle within its refrigerators. Although the natural gas industry has utilized this procedure for years, MMR Technologies was the initial company to patent the technology and adapt it for tiny, lightweight, and portable freezing systems.
The way the Kleemenko cycle works is a combination of compressed gas and liquid is passed down a countercurrent exchanger and it is able to expand through a capillary or throttling valve. Cooling occurs upon expansion, and also the cool gas passes back the high temperature exchanger, precooling the incoming high-pressure gas. A number of liquid-vapor separators may be incorporated from the cycle so the expansion of the liquid could be used to precool the vapor (W.A. Little., Presented at ICEC17, Bournemouth, U.K.,July 14-17 1998)
The BIO 120 is actually a zero-maintenance, low-power-consumption Kleemenko refrigerator that is designed for storing frozen tissue, cell cultures, organs, and the body parts. The system allows the scientist to warm and funky samples uniformly without shocking them, and since they have an internal power supply you can use it for your transportation of samples from storage facility to check out laboratory. Robert Paugh, product manager for MMR Technologies, was insistent on the necessity for controlled temperature ramping.
“Being a user you would like to know the minimum temperature and just how it gets there,” said Paugh. MMR Technologies’ enhanced control systems and printed thermal record of cooling ensures that uniform temperatures happen to be maintained throughout the cooling process.
Kelvinator Scientific, and that is a subsidiary of Frigidaire, provides freezer units for laboratories and pharmacies that are equipped for biological samples at temperatures as a result of -86°C. At temperatures this low animal and plant viruses, bacteria, spores, and bacteriophages may be preserved for longer periods. Locking lids are given as a way to protect samples from accidental exposure to ambient temperatures. Adjustable shelving, pullout drawers, and drawer partition inserts are useful for separating different experiments.
NuAire, Inc. credits much of its ultralow freezing capabilities to the heavy-gauge galvanized steel cabinets. The high temperature-conducting quality of this material reduces stress on compressors allowing the units to operate longer and colder than would otherwise be possible. Maintaining temperatures at -152°C the NuAire ultralow freezer can do holding samples underneath the crystallization point.
In keeping with the Clean Air Act of 1990 for systems using HCFC/HFC refrigerants, NuAire also relies on a special mixture of azeotropic gases that are non-flammable and allow on-site recycling. Moreover, a built in timer cycles the low stage compressor every 24 hours, turning it away to ensure the capillary tubing is going to be cleared of ice formation.
So-Low Environmental Equipment Co. features a long tradition of earning ultralow freezers for laboratory applications. In fact, with four decades of expertise under its belt, So-Low is amongst the oldest manufacturers of ultralow temperature freezers in the industry. Once the Montreal Protocol started the phase away from CFC refrigerants in 1987, So-Low was one of the primary to utilize Dupont Suva 95, the latest CFC-free refrigerant that runs cooler along with less pressure than CFCs. As well as its investigation of green refrigerants, So-Low also has developed an innovative compressor that is certainly designed only for its ultralow freezers.
Forma Scientific offers both mechanical and liquid nitrogen storage systems for preserving samples at ultralow temperatures. The mechanical freezers preserve specimens as a result of -86°C, while Forma’s liquid nitrogen freezers store samples at -133°C. Unlike its competitors’ liquid nitrogen freezers, however, Forma provides square cross-section units instead of the standard cylindrical containers. All these cabinets is constructed of cold-rolled steel. Forma’s counterbalanced lids provide easy accessibility, an optional thermal data printer continuously documents all operational functions, as well as a storage system adjusts to support a range of tube sizes. Forma offers a patented double door unit that separates long term from everyday storage.
Revco is amongst the largest manufacturers of laboratory freezers with more than 50 years of expertise in the market. Revco’s Elite, Value, and Ultima mechanical freezers sustain temperatures from -10°C to as low as -120°C without CFC refrigerants and can be found in chest, upright, and tabletop models. Its sophisticated Ultima freezers offer automatic electronic systems that constantly adjust conditions towards the internal and external environment, correcting for subtle fluctuations in ambient temperature, excessive loading with warm samples, and dirty filters. Furthermore, it carries a scrubbing cycle that removes vaporized lubricating oil from the evaporating coils.
Sanyo has become manufacturing laboratory and medical freezers more than two decades, beginning with its manufacture of the first -40°C chest freezer in 1974. Sanyo duplicated this achievement with the growth of the very first -152°C ultralow temperature freezer in 1991 and additional demonstrated its position by becoming the first manufacturer to provide a complete variety of CFC-free medical freezers. Today, Sanyo offers one of many largest selections of ultralow temperature lab freezers available today. Sanyo’s upright and chest freezers are designed for use in preserving cells, bacteria, spores, pollen, sperm, protozoa, and blood components for academic and industrial research.
The word dewar, originally used on double walled glass vacuum flasks, is now applied to a wide range of insulated vessels created for maintenance of samples in liquid nitrogen. Based on their size, dewars usually rest on to the floor or take a seat on tabletops where samples can be accessed. Due to the quality of insulation materials, some dewars have maintained critical temperatures for as long as 12 months without being regenerated with liquid nitrogen. The normal thermal wall contains an aluminum or steel sandwich loaded with polyurethane. The size and configuration of dewars vary to this kind of extent that a great many companies build custom dewars to buy. Many of these companies along with their goods are reviewed within the following section.
From Alaskan salmon eggs to embryos from Idaho’s chicken farms, MVE has made laboratory freezers for a multitude of applications. Needless to say, animal breeders are just a small portion of its customers. Blood and cell storage as well as organ shipment are an equally large part of MVE’s business with medical and pharmaceutical applications representing the quickest-growing area of the marketplace for the company’s products.
MVE was the 1st company to build up biological freezers effective at maintaining a -190°C environment for any full year without refilling with nitrogen. Since that point MVE has released the complete type of XLC series liquid and vapor-phase freezers. The XLC liquid nitrogen freezers are designed for handling as much as 36,000 vials at temperatures as little as -195.8°C. The vapor-phase freezers are fitted to cells that can be stored at -125°C but will become damaged or discolored at critical temperatures achieved by liquid nitrogen freezers. The vapor-phase freezers will also be helpful for storing hazardous materials which may cross-communicate in a liquid medium, for example contaminated-blood bags which are prone to break open.
Quantum Technology is really a worldwide manufacturer and supplier of laboratory freezers with offices in america and Germany. Its product line includes everything from compressors and temperature sensors to gas wells and vacuum shrouds.
According to Sean Wolf, product manager for Quantum Technology, a good way his company has was able to remain competitive is by offering on-site service and warranty repair. Another major selling reason for Quantum’s refrigeration systems is simply because they could be custom designed.
Certainly one of Quantum Technology’s most in-demand products can be a helium recovery system. Although liquid helium is only $4 or $5 per liter, in lots of countries away from The United States and Europe, the expense of purchasing helium is an issue of concern. That is amongst the factors why Quantum Technology makes a competent two-stage and three-stage closed-cycle refrigerator wherein the helium is retained inside the system. The helium using this refrigerator is reliquified to be used time and again.
Lab-Line Instruments, designer and manufacturer of dewars for scientific research and recently acquired subsidiary of Barnstead Thermolyne, delivers a Thermo-Flask brand of products which include wide-mouth flasks, insulated Thermo-Cups, steel Thermo-Flasks, and enameled steel Thermo-Flasks. Twenty-six different models are offered with capacities from 200 cc to 10 liters, and every one of these models is offered having a 24-month warranty. Other special features of the Thermo-Flask collection of products include vented lids to avoid pressure build-up, fold-down handles, and borosilicate inner vessels evacuated to supply coolant retention for samples saved in liquid nitrogen or solid CO2.
Barnstead Thermolyne manufactures the Bio-Cane and Locator Plus cryogenic storage systems, which are distributed by several companies throughout the usa. The Bio-Cane systems are available in five sizes and present features such as super vacuum insulation, ampule cans, a polycarbonate lid, and color-coded canisters for inventory identification. The Locator Plus storage systems can be purchased in four sizes and have capacities as high as 6,000 vials. Along with several of the standard features contained in the Bio-Cane, the Locator provides hanging racks by using a gridded box design, audible and visual alarms that warn of low-level conditions, plus an ultrasonic liquid level monitor that eliminates connection with liquid nitrogen and consequently reduces evaporation.
Pope Scientific makes a number of traditional dewar flasks in “cylindrical,” “low form shallow,” and “spherical” styles. All Pope dewars are produced from borosilicate glass paid by a protective mesh, and every wide-mouth model carries a vented polyethylene stopper to lessen evaporation. Wide-mouth dewars may also be jacketed in aluminum casing for more safety.
Pope Scientific’s narrow-mouth or “constricted-neck” dewars are suitable for temporary storage or transfer applications with holding times in excess of two weeks. Every one of these units come designed with a minimal-evaporation stopper, a completely shielded evacuation tip, a weighted base, and protective mesh. Choices for these instruments include fiberglass caddies for carrying or decanting.
Taylor-Wharton International definitely makes the K Series, XT (Extended Time), HC (High Capacity), and RS (Rack System) dewars which allow the researcher to save vast amounts of semen, embryos, and biological samples at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Each one of these units is complemented by its unique inventory control system, which is made to maximize the quantity of vials that can be safely arranged in to a canister-type storage device. By either immersing samples in liquid nitrogen or suspending them in nitrogen vapor, vials could be maintained at temperatures of -196° C.
Cryogenic Tubes are one of the most frequently used and least considered implements in the researcher’s tool box. Bags of tubes are stuffed into corners and forgotten until they mysteriously run out one day. Then its time to visit shopping. Making decisions about buying cryogenic tubes is usually guided by three primary issues, the very first which concerns the challenge of if they are externally or internally threaded. Advocates of externally threaded vials suggest that material is trapped throughout the threads of internally threaded vials, while proponents of your internally threaded sort debate that externally threaded vials will be more easily contaminated by accidental contact. Although research has been conducted in order to confirm or refute these claims, these have not been conclusive, as well as the debate proceeds.
One more consideration that comes under consideration when choosing cryogenic tubes will be the material from where they can be constructed. While plastic vials are, perhaps, more durable than glass, they take more time to warm which can negatively change the viability of some cells. Some plastic tubes can also be contaminated with releasing fluids throughout the molding process. However, releasing fluids are easy to remove with all the good care, and several brands like Axygen are looking at new polished molds that do not require using releasing fluids. Glass, however, warms rapidly but is additionally subjected to fracture because of microchannels which could form within the glass, causing leakage of sample contents, and even violent explosions. Plastic vials may also be vulnerable to nitrogen penetration but the chance of explosion is not really as great.
Gasketing has been specifically an issue of some contention in this industry. Many cryovials include a washer that keeps the inner pressure of the vial from expelling the tube’s contents after it is warmed to ambient conditions. The rapid expansion of gas in the tube is enough to force cells and fluid from the lids of many non-gasketed cryotubes. Silicon is usually preferred because the best material for insulating caps against leakage. Although rubber can also be used, it possesses a tendency to lose its elasticity when dropped to freezing temperatures, a problem that was demonstrated as soon as the “O” rings in the space shuttle Challenger failed.
Simport Plastics, headquartered in Quebec, supplies a large choice of cryotubes and microcentrifuge tubes that you can use at temperatures as little as -190°C. Made for handling biological samples under freezing conditions for prolonged periods, its Cryovials™ come designed with attached leak proof caps that include a dual lip as well as a silicon washer. A unique ridge on each cap makes handling easier, bringing about one-hand aseptic technique, and color-coded cap inserts in conjunction with white marking areas make each vial easily identifiable.
Evergreen Scientific manufactures the CryoSure® make of vials for storing cell cultures, blood/serum specimens, sperm, and also other biological fluids at vapor-phase liquid nitrogen temperatures (-195°C). CryoSure vials can be bought in 1. ml, 1.5 ml, and three.5 ml sizes and come in round-bottom and freestanding configurations.
Evergreen also offers a wide selection of microcentrifuge tubes that range in capacities from 250 µ l to 2. ml. Such as polypropylene tubes, which is often used in combination with solvents, alcohols, chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons, and ketones. These tubes are sterilized using gamma radiation and they are pressure tested inside a vacuum chamber to ensure the reliability of its double-sealing screw caps.
Evergreen has developed a new microcentrifuge tube, in cooperation with Washington University Lipid Research Center, to be used in lipid fractionation studies. It is actually a 1.5 ml polystyrene tube with an 11 mm high-density polyethylene cap. One of the outstanding highlights of this tube is that it is utterly transparent.
Nalgene® and Nunc™ cryogenic vials include a selection of externally and internally threaded vials from 1. to 5. ml capacities which are silicone gasketed and guaranteed to use inside a centrifuge. The Nalgene 5000 series vials feature graduations and so are certified being sterile, noncytotoxic and nonpyrogenic, while the System 100 vials are certain to be leakproof inside a microcentrifuge up to 8,000 g and during shipment and transport. However, the company warns that cryotubes improperly sealed in liquid phase may lead to an explosion or biohazard release. Nalgene and Nunc have given CryoFlex Tubing to avert this contingency.
Wheaton Science Products makes tubes and flasks for almost every eventuality. From serum bottles to mobile phase reservoirs, they have developed a comprehensive catalog of products for handling liquid samples. Wheaton’s Cryules® can be purchased in both plastic and glass. The glass Cryule is manufactured out of Wheaton-33° low extractable glass that can be hermetically sealed. These are typically most suitable for your preservation of biological materials with liquid nitrogen at low temperatures. Wheaton’s plastic Cryules are autoclavable and, like all of the glass Cryules, can withstand temperatures between -196°C and 121°C. Wheaton Vacules are vials which are constructed for lyophilization and freeze-drying. Their heavy-wall construction ensures they are exceptionally durable, and they can be flame sealed or stored by using a range of stoppers and caps.
Corning Incorporated Science Products Division makes a series of polypropylene vials that are equipped for use at temperatures to -196°C. These come equipped with various features including color-coded caps, silicon and rubber washers for secure sealing of contents, and easy-to-read graduations for partial volumes. Self-standing and locking features are available with selected styles. All Corning’s vials are supplied sterile and certified as nonpyrogenic.
Axygen Scientific Inc. makes microcentrifuge and screw-cap tubes for storing samples at subfreezing temperatures which are made with 99.9 percent pure polypropylene with no mineral fillers or heavy metals. Foreign substances are added limited to the request of the customer, and Axygen’s colorants contain no metallic ions including iron, chromium, or nickel which can be typical constituents of dyes. Each one of the company’s vials is made to snap closed in the locked position for centrifugation, and special piercing ports create the insertion of syringes easier for collecting samples. Axygen’s “O” ring closure system features a patent-pending alignment system that guarantees the microtube is aligned inside the centrifuge rotor being re-spun without disturbing the pelletized sediment.
Sarstedt Inc. has a extensive catalog of microcentrifuge tubes that happen to be ideal for both freezing at ultralow temperatures and centrifugation which come in a variety of sizes, shapes, and colors. An individual has the option of choosing from a number of externally threaded microtubes with attached or enclosed screw caps which may be colored for identification. All of Sarstedt’s tubes are sterile, and also the polypropylene material that they can be constructed enables them to endure subfreezing temperatures as well as temperatures and pressures in an autoclave. Among the areas that Sarstedt has paid particular attention to in developing its brand of products is the demand for cryogenic vials that have reaction buffers and enzymes for PCR applications.
Stockwell Scientific manufacturers CRYO-LOK® Cryogenic Vials and screw- cap microcentrifuge tubes for storage and transport at ultralow temperatures. These range in capacity from .5 ml to 3.5 ml and can be found in conical and skirted configurations. Stockwell’s microcentrifuge tubes could be exposed to a centrifugal force of 20,000 g and all of its O-ring sealed tubes continues to be sterilized.
Storage inventory systems are a critical a part of any long-term protocol for cryogenic preservation. Once cryogenic vials are stored at subfreezing temperatures they may undergo changes which make them difficult to keep trace. Labels may become brittle, breaking and separating from vials, and improperly stored tubes may be dropped into liquid nitrogen making retrieval difficult and costly. Probably the most popular strategies for containing samples may be the canister and cane. Applying this technique, a series of vials are enclosed inside a long aluminum shaft that is certainly submerged within liquid nitrogen. The canes can be manipulated for small sample volumes and protect vials from damage which may occur from bumping or agitation. For greater storage capacities, however, the drawer product is usually preferred. Although drawer systems have a tendency to expose more samples to warming during exchange, the accessibility of the system reduces exposure time for you to ambient temperatures resulting in less evaporation from the freezer, as well as reduces the researcher’s being exposed to possibly damaging cryogens.
Forma Scientific makes rack inventory systems for liquid-phase and vapor-phase storage. These racks are made to optimize the volume of storage area afforded by Forma’s liquid nitrogen containers. The regular inventory configuration is actually a cardboard or steel construction arranged into arrowhead or square designs. Vertical inventory systems allow the user to set up as many as 82 racks at maximum density.
TetraLink International focuses on making storage boxes and rack systems for cryogenic storage. Designed for the widest possible applicability, its freezer storage systems can be bought in numerous sizes, shapes, and colors to match just about any freezer. Clear lids allow contents to become viewed without opening the containers, and they are often adjusted in certain models to accommodate tubes of varying heights. Round holes provide spacing with clearance for snap-seal and safe-lock caps. TetraLink’s Racksys storage system uses sliding drawers that have storage racks for holding as much as 267 microtubes. These drawers might be installed in every upright freezer or refrigerator.
Nalgene and Nunc storage systems comprise a series of plastic or chipboard containers for microcentrifuge tubes and glass vials. These are typically keyed in order to avoid misalignment and offer temperature resistance from -196°C to 121°C.
Nalgene® CryoBox Racks provide steel retainer systems appropriate for all Nalgene and Nunc storage boxes. They provide vertical and horizontal storage for boxes that maintain each box separately for quick retrieval.
National Labnet provides freezer racks and storage boxes for an increasing assortment of sample containers. As high-throughput experiments require greater reserves of reagents, Cryogenic Movable tank has responded with boxes and racks which are constructed for numerous examples of both well plates and cryovials. They also have introduced boxes with telescoping lids to be able to satisfy requirements for single box containers with vials of differing sizes.
Custom Biogenic Systems is probably the largest manufacturers of rack systems for cryogenic storage containers. The truth is, several of its merchandise is sold as standard accessories with a number of the major producers of laboratory freezers. Its pie-shaped racks are constructed from stainless and will include a choice of cardboard, aluminum, or stainless-steel boxes with 1/2 inch or 5/8″ cell dividers. These systems can be purchased as individual units or as complete racks for use in vapor- phase or liquid-phase storage.
Most likely, the cryogenic products one buys today is definitely the same ones that can be used for years. An investment made today may work for decade. Essentially, researchers buying Cryogenic Centrifugal Pump are not just buying products by themselves, they can be buying for their successors. The individual must look into what might 46dexkpky during the period of years if their samples become degraded or contaminated as a result of improper storage. Just a little money that had been saved initially by scrimping on vials or freezers may well not appear to be the best trade off when valuable samples are lost. Inspite of the safeguards integrated to a large number of devices many product managers recommend making regular maintenance on these items a top priority. Appointing a lasting position that is accountable for the cryogenic safety from the laboratory’s biological collection is amongst the best ways to assure the integrity of these samples.